State Puppet Theater of Uzbekistan
“Until the middle of the XIX century, there was no art addressed specifically to children, but children — the future citizens of any country and the future depend on how they are educated. That is why in modern society the role of the puppet theater is so important: to bring good through art to children and adults. We must always remember that Puppet Theater is a very important and powerful art that people really need. ”
From the book “International puppet theater”
In 2011, one of the oldest theaters in Uzbekistan, the State Puppet Theater, is 72 years old. For a human, this is the age of sophisticated maturity, and for the theater, the time of formation and creative endeavors. And yet, behind the shoulder is already a solid baggage of active theatrical activity aimed at rising the younger generation of children, carrying the joy of communication with the amazing art of the puppet theater.
“Hey, people, don't say that, you have not seen! Do not say that, did not hear! From generation to generation, puppet show is transmitted! “This was how the Uzbek folk puppet show began in the squares and villages of the native land. And despite the persecutions of the nobility and the clergy, overcoming hunger and deprivation, they still managed to preserve the resiliently sparkling art of the puppeteers, on the basis of which professional troupes, studios and theaters were formed.
In 1928, in Middle Asia at the theater of the Young Spectator, the first in Central Asia, the doll studio “Petrushka” was opened, which included a small group of actors, laid down by the hereditary folk puppeteer Tashpulat Daniyarov. Having successfully worked for ten years, this studio, together with the Russian puppet theater at the Palace of Pioneers, became the basis of the first troupe of the State puppet theater. “To create a state theater whose task is to provide services for children of cities, districts and villages of the republic,” said the Resolution of the Government of Uzbekistan of October 19, 1939. From this moment begins the professional activity of the nascent young theatrical organism. There is an active work on the formulation of the troupe; the repertoire solves many complex organizational issues. And on December 25, 1939, the curtain opens for the first time in a tiny building on Karl Marx Street - on the stage of the “Big Ivan” performance by S. Obraztsov, S. Preobrazhensky, staged by I. Liozin, N. Rakhimov M. Efimov. So the puppet fraternity of this performance heralded from the beginning of the creative path of the state puppet theater. It so happened that the first years of the formation of the SPT (State Puppet Theater) coincided with the difficult and bitter years of the Great Patriotic War. But no difficulties of terrible wartime prevented the young team from creating a holiday for children and adults, to cause the audience to smile and laugh, to assert faith and hope for a quick victory. Here the close connection between the theater and its audience was especially vividly revealed. Based on the experience and tradition of folk theaters, the SPT team creates a number of campaigns and concert programs, which are satirically sharply exposing the myth of the “invincibility” of Hitler’s Germany and its warriors, instilling faith in victory over fascism. During the war years, the theater team grew stronger, ideologically and creatively grew. Its composition was supplemented by many gifted specialists, among whom energetic enthusiastic enthusiasts who stood at the origins of this theater were especially notable: director Raisa Lvovna Ananyeva, artist-artist E.G. Podgurskaya, directors L.V. Volkova, Yu.Yu. Trakhterova, artists - A. Saidaliev, T. Daniyarov, V.M. Gryaznova, Z. Iskhakov, M. Rakhmatullaeva, N. Zainutdinov and many others.
The puppet theater and the following years live in a tense rhythm, daily showing their viewers a wide variety of performances, based on the works of the greatest writers of the past and present, in close cooperation with local and visiting writers, dramatists, poets, composers and artists. His close friends in those years became S.Ya.Marshak, K.I. Chukovsky, S.Preobrazhensky, V.Meyn, Y.E. Shevelev. The wide geography of the plays allowed the theater to expand the boundaries of knowledge of the peoples of the world, educate viewers in the spirit of a genuine intern nationalism and humanism.
Peaceful life presented the team with new requirements, complicated creative tasks, expanding and enriching the repertoire with children's literary classics: Snow White, Tom Sawyer, Kashtanka, The Snow Queen, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, The Tale of the Dead Princess and seven heroes ”, “ Three Fat Men ”,“ Little Muk ”,“ Mowgli ”,“ Gavrosh ”, etc. It is difficult to overestimate the aesthetic and moral impact on children of their favorite heroes of popular books who came to life on the stage. The theater still has a serious understanding of these important issues of the repertoire
eat. But special attention was paid to what S.Ya.Marshak called the search for “his own drama” - the creation of his own national repertoire. The first national fairy tale staged by the theater was the play “Davron” by J. Babajanov, which gave an important impetus to the creation and staging of the national Uzbek dramaturgy. And to this day, in close collaboration of the theater with many children's writers and drama artists.
gami born and develops the repertoire of the RTC.So were born in the theater and got a start in life such plays as: “The Adventures of Fatima” N.Habibullaeva, “Bir chigitdan-ming chigit” N.Rozimuhamedova, “Simurg” Zulfiya and S.Somova , “Oigul and Bakhtiyar” by H.Alimjan, “Farhad and Shirin”, A.Navoi, “Mysterious pipe” by M.Khalil, “The magic chamois” by A.Kabulova, “The tale of the blacksmith and princess” by Isfandiyar, “Bullfinch - sharp horns »R.Farhadi,“ The Island of Magic Letters ”by H.Imonberdiyev,“ Smile, Aikhon ”(“ The Tricks of Mysara ”by Hamza). Many of them enjoyed great success with the viewer, gained wide popularity and replenished the golden fund of Uzbek puppet art.
The arrival of serious drama in the theater of various thematic and genre terms, the complexity of its stage implementation demanded from the theater new means and forms of artistic expression. Without abandoning the traditional screen and “glove” dolls, controlled by the movements of the fingers, he increasingly begins to use the more sophisticated design of “walking” dolls with moving eyes, mouth, eyebrows, ears, etc., mastering the entire space of the stage, displaying actors in the "living plan" to the forefront.
In the postwar years, a whole galaxy of remarkable people, devoted and loving their work, joined the theater team. Among them are directors such as: A.M. Arbenin, B.V. Sakhnovsky, V.S.Jogelsen, N.A.Dudarova, I.B.Ancharov, L.A.Hait, F.S. Schein, N Talipov, N. Dostkhodzhaev, director and actor N. Zainutdinov, artists I.Ya. Waldenberg, D.V. Ushakov, B.V.Chelli, G.A. Weesel, R.V. Levitsky, N.A.Bachurin, master of making dolls A.S. Semikova, choreographer M.N.Gerdt, actors-puppeteers V.M. Gryaznova, K.N. Yakovleva, A.S. Yulinskaya, L.Shakova, A.Makarova, S.Sobolev, A. Saidaliev, U. Allakulova.
At this time, the formation of the adult repertoire, laid down in satirical programs and concert scenes of wartime, took place. But now these dramas were based on professional dramaturgy: “The Devil's Mill” by I. Shtok, “12 chairs” by I. Ilf and E. Petrov , “Pretty Galatea” by B. Gador, S. Darvash, “Guriy L. Sinichkin” by V. Dykhovichny, L. Slobodsky, “And Laughter, and Tears, and Love” by V. Polyakov ”,“ The Naked King ”by E. Schwartz. The artistic level of these performances, staged by talented directors: F. Shein, V. Jogelsen, L. Hait, merit of the RSFSR founder M. Korolev, A. Belinsky was a serious competitor to the productions of “adult” drama theaters.
The well-deserved success of the State Puppet Theater in the 70s - during the heyday of puppet Soviet art, brought interesting, colorful works born in the long-term work of the creative tandem of Honored Art Workers of Uzbekistan I.R. Yakubov and V.G. Akudin
They became truly the leading figures of the Uzbek puppet theater, having worked side by side for a quarter of a century.
Particularly noteworthy is the play "Semurg", marked by a special award of the USSR Ministry of Culture at the 1st Puppet Festival of Central Asia and Kazakhstan, "Aldar Kose", awarded with a diploma of the All-Union Festival of Theatrical Art of the Peoples of the USSR: "12 months" , "Girl-jigit", "Sleeping Beauty", "The Tale of Kindness", "Well, wolf, wait a minute!" And many others.
At international exhibitions in Belgium, Brazil, Poland, Czechoslovakia, France, Morocco exhibited artistic sketches, dolls and posters VG Akudin, performed specifically for Tashkent productions. They were awarded silver and bronze medals of the USSR Exhibition of Economic Achievements.
In 1979, in the year of the 40th anniversary, the staff of the State Puppet Theater celebrated its housewarming party in a new remarkable building on Kosmonavtov Avenue 1, which more than one generation of Tashkent puppets dreamed of. This momentous event was timed to the opening of the International Puppet Theater of Asian Countries, in which the great puppeteer of the world Sergey Obraztsov took an active part.
Few Tashkent theaters can boast of a specially constructed building. And especially in such a fabulous palace with white jagged towers, with patterned patterns of woodcarving and ganch, colored ceramics and copper, iridescent stained glass windows and fountains, a museum of dolls and Oriental fabulous town with fancy lighting. Far outside the theater, the melodious sounds of theatrical bells and the drumming of the ridiculous traditional Uzbek puppet hero are heard
Kachala Palvan, heralding the beginning of the presentation of the solemn round dance of the dolls of the world. This building is truly a national pride of modern architectural architecture of Uzbekistan, a wonderful gift to Tashkent children, a symbol of the true concern of the Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan about the spiritual health of the younger generations.
Having received such comfortable apartments, the Uzbek puppets set to work with even greater zeal. More than four premieres and seven hundred plays a year in Uzbek and Russian languages, visits to kindergartens, schools, pioneer camps, in the provinces and cities of the Republic.
This all constituted a hard program of working days of the SPT. Noticeably the cast of both troupes at the expense of the first graduates
kov puppet department of the Theater and Art Institute. Ostrovsky. Among them: N.Goncharova, L.Gribanova, D.Saliev, A.Mirzagiyazov, F.Hodjaev, E.Karpushinsky, M.Parpiyeva, A.Niyazov, L.Kutlieva, G.Fatkulina, A.Makhkamova, K.Isamova , T. Seduhina. A. Atabaev. Work with them successfully: G. Khoroshavtsev, G. Prokofiev, L. Mazov, N. Danilov, N. Ustyugina, N. Kiselev, S. Fadeeva, Sh. Saliyev, Sh. Kamilova, J. Meyder.
A worthy place in the repertoire of the theater was taken by the works of young directors: Honored Artist Uzb.T.Makhramov, V.Kolyadin, M. Babadzhanov, who had passed a long-term acting school in the native languages of the SPT. Many of them still do not leave the theatrical stage:
"Mysterious pipe", "Amazing Clapper", "Golden Key", "The Adventures of Fatima."
It would be unfair not to mention the workers of the art workshops, through whose skill the visual image of the performances is created. These are artist-props for particularly important works: V.Sagadeev and R.V. Ibrahimov awarded with the Order “Shukhrat”, who devoted their entire adult life to the creative activity of the theater.
One of the most important components of the RTC’s creative activity was a thirty-year experience of membership in the International Union of Children
Puppet theaters UNIMA, which allowed to maintain constant creative contacts with colleagues from around the world.
The State Puppet Theater is a participant of the 1st and P festivals of puppet theaters of Central Asia and Kazakhstan, the International Festival of Asian Countries. He was a repeated winner and participant of six Republican festivals. Awarded memorable gifts, diplomas
awards and titles. In 1999 he was awarded the International Award
Qualities for high professionalism and aesthetic education of young generations in Mexico City (Mexico, March 20).
A special place in the theatrical activity of the SPT is foreign trips to international festivals and tours. The theater visited Burma, Pakistan, Afghanistan, France, India, Bulgaria, Germany, USA, Turkey, South Korea, Egypt, Russia. And in each country
takli were played in host languages.
A fruitful creative contact has developed with the collective with the State Puppet Theater of Gabrovo (Bulgaria). The results of this collaboration were the performances of “Sunny Boy” by M.Asenov and “The White Fairy Tale” by V.Petrov, staged in Tashkent by Bulgarian colleagues, as well as the Uzbek performances “Simurg” and “41 flies of Khoja Nasreddin, which were successful in the Gabrovsky Theater.
The desire to expand creative contacts, to acquaint viewers of other neighboring republics with Uzbek art led the theater to make exchange tours with other theaters.
dolls of the CIS countries: Chelyabinsk, Chimkent, Dnepropetrovsk, Kuibyshev, Kiev, Chisinau, Almaty, Beshkek, etc.
In the 90s, the theater persistently continues to work on the repertoire for adults. The play “Smile, Ayhon” by M.Ushats was based on the comedy of the Uzbek classical literature Hamza Hakim-zade Niyazi “The Tricks of Mysara”, rock opera by A. Rybnikov and P. Grushko “Star and Death of Joaquin Murietta” after the poem of the great poet of Chile Pablo Neruda, the political pamphlet “Agent 00” based on the play of the writer and playwright G. Borovik, and the comedy “Happy Beggars” based on the famous theatrical tale of Carlo Gozzi. Unfortunately, in the following years, the repertoire for adults was not replenished with new performances, thereby denoting a crisis in the directorial activity on the repertoire for
older age category of the viewer.
In the years of independence of Uzbekistan, proclaimed in 1991, the process of renewal of society could not help but touch upon the problems of the childhood of the younger generation, which was to rebuild and learn to build in a new way. As well as the whole country, the theater experienced all the difficulties of the so-called “perestroika” period. In social life
people were fermented, brain drain abroad, panic and uncertainty about tomorrow. One after another, the theater leaves talented people who make up the creative core of the theater: the main director I.R. Yakubov, director M. Babadzhanov, blit. I.Lukyanova, head. pedagogical
The part of EM Shpolyanskaya, the head of the staging part J. Meider, designer S. Strashnov, actors: I. Manakhimova, S. Fadeeva, N. Goncharova, T. Kharlamov, E. Karpushinsky and many, many others.
In this difficult period of a temporary shortage of specialists, young directors, actors, artists: B. Yadgarhodzhayev (“Beat the Club!”, “Flying Galoshes”), T. Kabulov (“Ali Baba and Others”) N. Kiselev (“The Sun and Snowmen”, “New Year's Adventure”), S.Kamilov (“Sambo”), S.Seduhin (“Golden Chicken”, “White, Red, Black”, “Sailing on a Sunflower”) , E.Tuychiev (“Gul and Tazolan”), D.Yuldasheva (“Again Andersen”, “Who Said“ Meow ”?”, “The Nutcracker”, “Star Boy”, “Little Red Riding Hood”), M.Igamnazarova ( “Frost”), K.I. Samova ("Attention, traffic light!"). F. Khojaev ("Imps-mischievous", "Jolly Balagan", "Grandmother's Doll", "Three Funny Piglet").
In 1993, Shamurat Yusupov (now Honored Artist of Uzbekistan) came to SPT - a new creative person, behind whom was the formation of the Bukhara Puppet Theater and ten years of creative work in the field of the main director. He performs in the theater a new production.
“Hasan is a seeker of happiness” E.Speransky, who at the fourth Republican festival in the city of Andijan receives the prize “For the best performance of the year”.
This success will be the decisive factor in choosing his candidacy for the post of the chief director of the SPT. In the work of Sh. Yusupov, as with every seeking director, there were ups and downs, successes and failures. But these facts of labor activity did not give him a reason to lose his “I”, to stop there. The search for his creative credo is noticeable in almost all his productions, and most often they ended in success. His performances: “Dwarf Nose”, “Chodir Hael”, “Hawk”, “Aladdin's Magic Lamp”, “Chodir Zhamol”, “Polka-Dot”, “The Snow Queen”, “The Secret of Underground Treasures” deservedly enjoyed spectator sympathies not only in Uzbekistan, but far beyond.
During this time, the list of the theater was supplemented with the names of new artists: R. Kamaletdinov, S. Sedukhin, S. Zhiboedov, B. Ismailov, L. Mukhamedova, N. Yuldasheva, M. Ivanyan; Composers: Honored Artist of Uzbekistan Uz.A.Ikramov, M.Kalantarova, A.Latif-Zade.
New cast and new cast were added: E. Fatkhullina, Yu. Shibkov, S. Rizazadze, V. Yusupova, Sh. Dzhabbarov, K. Dzhabbarova, N. Kiseleva, R. Dekhkanbaev, D. Hasanova, T. Storozhenko, E. Mirzakhidov , N.Akhmedov, G.Hakimov, N.Saylieva, P.Batskikh, G.Borodin, Z.Abdurahmanova, G.Hakimov, M.Umarshaeva.
From 1998 to 2000 in the SPT, the honored artist of Kazakhstan Bekbulat Parmanov comes to the position of the main director, on whose creative account numerous productions in the republics of Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Karakalpakstan take place. For a short period of stay in the theater, he managed to implement a number of interesting productions: "Gosling", "Snow Flower", "Alpamysh", the latter in the theatrical palette of Tashkent city was named the best performance of the year and was awarded a valuable gift.
Since the end of 2002, Maryam Ashurova has been appointed to the post of the Chief Director of the RTC by the new management of the TPO UZBEKTEATR. Behind her shoulders is a rich experience in teaching at the Institute of Arts,
experience of productions in theaters of regional cities of the Republic. In the SPT, the concert “Assalom, Navruz” and the performances “The Adventures of the Mischievous”, “The Enchanted Prince”, “The Travels of Sinbad” were staged.
In 2003 RTC was invited to such a prestigious II International Festival. SV Obraztsova with the play “And again Andersen ...” by D. Yuldasheva, and after a successful performance in Moscow, this performance was selected for the VI International Festival “ART-VIZIT” in Krasnodar.
In 2004, the play “Once again, Andersen ...” won the honor of opening the Krasnodar Puppet Theater Festival and successfully copes with this honorable mission. At the same time, the Uzbek troupe SPT goes to the International Festival in Cairo (Egypt) with a concert "Assal, Navruz!" M. Ashurova. A month later (in November of this year), this performance becomes a participant of the folklore festival in Pakistan. And everywhere puppeteers from Tashkent are greeted with special cordiality and hospitality.
From 2006 to 2008, the SPT is headed by the leading actor of the theater Fathulla Khodjaev, who purposefully replenishes the directorial ranks of the puppet theater, engaging M. Fadeev and the former director of the Ilkhom Theater and the former Yuldashev Theater. And he is not mistaken, since this tandem is very fruitful for the creative activity of the theater. As a result, experimental, chamber works of M. Fadeev appear: “Vertep” and the recent premiere of “And, Salieri and Mozart” by A.S. Pushkin, which filled the gap in the adult repertoire of the theater. As well as the performances of the philosophical and psychological plan of D. Yuldasheva: “The Nutcracker” (together with the director F. Khodjaev), “The Star Boy” by O. Wilde, “The Shadow” by E. Schwartz
Currently, the creative maturity of the team is determined by the high level of mastery of the leading performers - stage masters F. Khojaev, V. Yusupova, Sh. Dzhabbarova, G. Prokofyeva, N. Kiseleva, N. Danilova, Honored Artist of Uzbekistan K. Djabbarova.
The beginning of 2009 was marked by the arrival of a new creative leader in the CPT. And the theater again pin its hopes on the new chief director E.Aripova, whose performance opened the anniversary season of the SPT. This music show with video art is called Aladdin's Magic Lamp. It is the first to synthesize the possibility of combining animation and puppet action.
At this new stage of growth and development in the creative process of the theater there is fertile ground for searching and experimenting. In the list of interesting personalities of the theater, new names of young artists appear: N.Yuldasheva, A.Chaplenko, M.Ruzmetov, V.Zabelina; composers: A. Kim, L. Ugai, S. Ergashev; actors: R. Yergashev, Z. Melkonyan, R. Utaganov, A. Isakov, U. Mamadaliev and others.
During its creative activity, the State Puppet Theater demonstrated not only its professional skills and achievements of Uzbek puppet art, but also the strength of the theater’s emotional impact on all categories of spectators, its huge role in the moral, aesthetic and international education of children, occupying an important place in the spiritual and social -cultural program of social development.